Diabetic nephropathy is a long-term kidney disease that can affect people with diabetes. It is also known as Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD). It happens when a person’s kidneys are damaged by elevated blood glucose levels.
Diabetic nephropathy is a leading cause of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The kidneys in ESRD are no longer able to satisfy the demands of everyday life. Kidney failure can occur as a result of ESRD, which can be life-threatening.
What are the risk factors of Diabetic Nephropathy?
The risk factors for diabetic nephropathy incorporate smoking, comorbidities and is more prevalent in people who are more than 62-65 years old. An individual with diabetic nephropathy may not experience any symptoms in the early stages. Changes in blood pressure and fluid equilibrium in the body, on the other hand, may already be present. Waste products can accumulate in the blood over time, causing symptoms.
Swollen feet and ankles, darker urine, shortness of breath are some of the symptoms presented in the later stages. Depending on a low glomerular filtration rate, (GFR), which also represents the percentage of successful kidney function, a doctor may divide kidney disease into stages, which range from stage 1 to 5.
Certain blood tests along with urine tests are advised to attain a diagnosis for diabetic nephropathy. Urine analysis and correct recording of the history of supine or erect blood pressure must be done. Albumin is also measured as the earliest clinically detectable evidence of the said condition.
The first step in treating diabetic nephropathy is to monitor and manage diabetes, as well as high blood pressure if necessary (hypertension). Kidney disease and other complications may be avoided or delayed with proper blood sugar and hypertension treatment. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) can help to lower blood pressure, protect kidney function, and prevent further damage.
What is Diabetic Nephropathy Market Size?
The increase in market size is a direct consequence of an increase in prevalent cases of diabetes, thereby a rise in the number of cases of Diabetic Kidney Disease. In addition to this, increase in R&D activity, awareness programs for diabetes and kidney-related issues in the 7MM.
The prevalence of diabetes worldwide has extended epidemic magnitudes and is expected to affect millions of people in the upcoming years. 34.2 million people in the United States have diabetes in 2018, accounting for 10.5% of the total population. Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in the United States and other Western societies. It is also one of the most significant long-term complications in terms of morbidity and mortality for individual patients with diabetes.
Also, Read Diabetic Nephropathy Market Report
What is Diabetic Nephropathy Treatment?
Treatment of patients with diabetic nephropathy can be divided into four major areas: cardiovascular risk reduction, glycemic control, blood pressure control, and inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Recommendations for therapy include targeting a hemoglobin A1c concentration < 7% and blood pressure < 140/90 mm Hg with therapy anchored around the use of a RAS-blocking agent. The single best evidence-based therapy for diabetic nephropathy is therapy with a RAS-blocking medication. The first step in treating diabetic nephropathy is to treat and control diabetes and, if needed, high blood pressure (hypertension). With good management of blood sugar and hypertension, one can prevent or delay kidney dysfunction and other complications.
To control high blood pressure, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are used. Using both of these together is not advised because of increased side effects. However, recently, additional blockade of the renin-angiotensin system with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) has been shown to reduce albuminuria in short-term studies in patients with DM and micro- or macroalbuminuria treated with ACE-Is or ARB.
What are the Diabetic Nephropathy Medications?
To manage high blood sugar, several medications have been shown to help in people with diabetic nephropathy. Studies support the goal of an average hemoglobin A1C of less than 7%. In addition to this, cholesterol-lowering drugs called statins are used to treat high cholesterol and reduce protein in the urine.
Medications that help manage calcium phosphate balance are important in maintaining healthy bones. Apart from this, medications that often reduce the level of the protein albumin in the urine and improve kidney function are used to control protein in the urine.
If the disease progresses to kidney failure (end-stage kidney disease), the doctor will help the patient transition to care focused on either replacing the function of the kidneys or making the patient more comfortable. Options include Kidney dialysis, Transplant, and Symptom management.
Despite available treatment options, current management of Diabetic Nephropathy still leaves a substantial residual risk for kidney disease progression, morbidity, and mortality. Recent advances in the understanding of disease pathophysiology have opened up new avenues of treatment.